Estudos Covid19

andre-dias.net

1 – Mortalidade em Portugal e no Mundo
2 – Testes PCR e rápidos/atigen/LFT
3 – Vacinas Covid19
4 – Imunidade
5 – Assintomáticos e Crianças
6 – Máscaras & Confinamentos
7 – Outras Doenças

Mortalidade em Portugal e no Mundo

Link: https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fmed.2020.607786/full
Descrição:
Uma análise de factores ambientais na evolução da doença indica que a evolução e determinada por factores sazonais. Todos os estudos de “eficácia” da destruição em confinamentos e máscaras são essencialmente lixo. Nenhum leva em conta o factor mais que provável: sazonalidade.

Link:https://www.medrxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.12.25.20248853v1 -Longitudinal variability in mortality predicts Covid-19 deaths
Descrição: A  mortalidade de covid-19 nos países europeus correlaciona mais com a mortalidade e variação de mortalidade nas épocas de gripe do passado que com as medidas tomadas!!!

Link:https://www.sns.gov.pt/monitorizacao-do-sns/servicos-de-urgencia/caracterizacao-urgencias/
Descrição: Monitorização em tempo real da utilização de serviços do SNS

 

Link:https://evm.min-saude.pt/
Descrição: Monitorização em tempo real da mortalidade em Portugal

 

Link:www.euromomo.eu
Descrição: Monitorização da mortalidade na Europa

 

Link:https://www.actamedicaportuguesa.com/revista/index.php/amp/article/view/13928
Descrição: Excess Mortality Estimation During the COVID-19 Pandemic: Preliminary Data from Portugal – Excesso de mortalidade em Portugal, a maioria da qual não pode ser atribuida a Covid por acontecer em épocas de baixa mortalidade associada a covid.

 

Link:https://www.medrxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.12.04.20243949v1 The burden of active infection and anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies in the general population: Results from a statewide survey in Karnataka, India
Descrição: 0,05% IFR na India

 

Link:https://gbdeclaration.org/#read
Descrição: Declaração de Great Barrington que propoe abordagem diferente para reduzir a mortalidade das medidas ate agora tomadas e do virus

 

Link: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/epdf/10.1111/eci.13423 – Global perspective of COVID-19 epidemiology for a full-cycle pandemic
Descrição:Artigo por J. Ioannidis, o epidemiologista mais citado do mundo. IFR no mundo entre 0,15 e0,20%, equivalente a gripe

 

Link:https://www.thelancet.com/journals/lanpub/article/PIIS2468-2667(20)30180-8/fulltext – Coronial autopsies identify the indirect effects of COVID-19
Descrição: Falta de cuidados médicos contribuiu para 14 mortes, que podiam ter sido evitadas por serem doenças tratáveis que ficaram abandonadas. Três suicidios por causa de cofinamento. Aumento de problemas de drogas. Um cenário aterrador em apenas 67 autópsias.

 

Link: https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/disaster-medicine-and-public-health-preparedness/article/public-health-lessons-learned-from-biases-in-coronavirus-mortality-overestimation/7ACD87D8FD2237285EB667BB28DCC6E9 Public Health Lessons Learned From Biases in Coronavirus Mortality Overestimation
Decisores ao mais alto nivel confundiram IFR com CFR. Exageraram por incompetencia pura o risco da infeção por confundir Infectados com Doentes. Multiplicaram por 10x ou 100x a taxa de mortalidade e decidiram com base em tal erro inadmissivel ao mais alto nivel.

 

Link:https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/nvss/vsrr/covid_weekly/index.htm
Descrição: O que já se sabia de outros países, agora pelo CDC dos EUA: apenas 6% do total dos mortos podem ser atribuídos directamente a covid, ou seja 9200 mortes. Num país de 300 000 000

 

Link:https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0013935120307854 Population-level COVID-19 mortality risk for non-elderly individuals overall and for non-elderly individuals without underlying diseases in pandemic epicenters
Descrição: Mortalide inexistente em crianças

 

Link:https://www.cebm.net/covid-19/public-health-england-death-data-revised/ Public Health England has changed its definition of deaths: here’s what it means
Descrição: Critérios de atribuição de mortes no UK incluiam qualquer testes postivo em qualquer altura da vida

 

Link:https://www.ons.gov.uk/peoplepopulationandcommunity/birthsdeathsandmarriages/deaths/bulletins/deathsregisteredweeklyinenglandandwalesprovisional/weekending10july2020
Descrição: Na Inglaterra, de acordo com a ONS (equivalente INE) nos ultimos dois meses por cada 3 mortos em excesso por covid, morreram mais duas pessoas por causa do confinamento.

 

Link:https://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/935356?src=wnl_edit_tpal&uac=298827CV&impID=2497403&faf=1
Descrição: Amputações de membros por complicações de diabetes dispararam na Itália durante as regras absurdas.

 

Link:https://www.medrxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.06.10.20127324v1
Descrição: Modelo do Imperial College é um monte de lixo

 

Link:https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/vivaldi-1-coronavirus-covid-19-care-homes-study-report/vivaldi-1-covid-19-care-homes-study-report
Descrição: 89% dos “casos” em lares de terceira idade são assintomáticos

 

Link:https://www.medrxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.06.26.20140731v1
Descrição: Covid em águas residuais no Brasil em novembro de 2019

 

Link:https://www.medrxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.06.13.20129627v1
Descrição: Covid em águas residuais em Barcelona em Março de 2019

 

Link:https://www.iss.it/en/primo-piano/-/asset_publisher/o4oGR9qmvUz9/content/id/5422725
Descrição: Covid em águas residuais em Itália em Dezembro de 2019

 

Link:https://www.medrxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.05.26.20098244v1
Descrição: O lockdown, a prisão de pessoas sem crime, salvou 146 pessoas, dizem, de 1 a 15 Abril em Portugal

 

Link:https://www.ats-milano.it/portale/Epidemiologia/Valutazione-dellepidemia-COVID-19
Descrição: Evolução da R(t) calculado à data de sintomas, portanto mais objectivo e menos sujeito ao ruido dos testes PCR.
Nem o mais remoto efeito do lockdown
A mortalidade total subiu em linha com o medo do covid e o virus explica pouco mais de metade. O medo matou quase tanto como o virus.

 

Link:https://www.bmj.com/content/369/bmj.m1931
Descrição: 30 000 mortos por outras causas em excesso no UK

 

Link:https://www.medrxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.05.13.20101253v1
Descrição: Infection fatality rates …. corrected values ranged from 0.02% to 0.40%.

 

Link:https://www.cebm.net/covid-19/covid-19-deaths-compared-with-swine-flu/
Descrição: Apenas uma infecção respiratória tardia exagerada por uma (na verdade são duas) época amena de gripe. Pelo centro de medicina baseada em prova da univ Oxford.

 

Link:https://www.medrxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.04.24.20075291v1
Descrição: Serological test over a blood bank, thus a good random factor. IFR/lethality under 0,1% for people younger than 70.

 

Link:https://www.dgs.pt/directrizes-da-dgs/normas-e-circulares-normativas/norma-n-0022020-de-16032020-pdf.aspx
Descrição: DGS obriga a tratamento de corpos de vitimas covid como contagiosos
“O cadáver deve sempre permanecer no saco impermeável (preferencialmente dupla embalagem) e em caixão fechado” quando a OMS diz“To date there is no evidence of persons having become infected from exposure to the bodies of persons who died from COVID-19;” Depois ficamos chocados com imagens de camiões e caixões. Depois alimenta-se medo que alimenta mais medo.

 

Link:http://www.salute.gov.it/portale/caldo/SISMG_sintesi_ULTIMO.pdf
Descrição: Mortalidade na Italia

 

Link:https://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMe2002387
Descrição: This suggests that the overall clinical consequences of Covid-19 may ultimately be more akin to those of a severe seasonal influenza

 

Testes PCR e rápidos/atigen/LFT

Link: https://www.nature.com/articles/s41467-020-20568-4
Desrição:  63% de falsos positivos em PCR. Artigo Nature, uma das revistas de topo.

Link:  https://academic.oup.com/jid/advance-article/doi/10.1093/infdis/jiaa802/6061974
Desrição: Usando critérios clinicos como gold standard – infeção in vitro – um teste rapido apresenta especificidade de 99.9%, e provam que PCR com mais de 30 ciclos é lixo.

Link:https://cormandrostenreview.com/report
Desrição: Revisão do protocolo de teste PCR por Drosten et al, um dos primeiros e o mais usado no mundo, onde se apontam falhas técnicas gravissimas e conflitos de intresse insanáveis.

 

Link:https://www.bmj.com/content/369/bmj.m1808
Descrição: Simulador de testes em cenários de baixa prevalencia/ probabilidade pré teste.

 

Link:https://www.nature.com/articles/s41467-020-19802-w
Descrição: Post-lockdown SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid screening in nearly ten million residents of Wuhan, China – Prevalência baixissima, não foi detectado qualquer caso de infeção por assintomáticos

 

https://academic.oup.com/cid/advance-article/doi/10.1093/cid/ciaa1491/5912603
Baixissima correlação entre infeção e positivo com elevados número de ciclos de teste PCR

 

https://academic.oup.com/cid/advance-article/doi/10.1093/cid/ciaa1764/6018217 Viral cultures for COVID-19 infectious potential assessment – a systematic review
Meta análise a testes PCR encontra elevado risco de falsos positivos

 

Link:https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jamainternalmedicine/fullarticle/2773053
Descrição: Assessment of SARS-CoV-2 RNA Test Results Among Patients Who Recovered From COVID-19 With Prior Negative Results – (A vacina é mais perigosa que o virus)

 

Link:https://www.medrxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.08.04.20167932v4.full.pdf
Descrição: Viral cultures for COVID-19 infectivity assessment – a systematic review (Update 4) – Os resutlados positivos de testes PCR só em 8% dos casos tem real capacidade de infectar, a maioria dos positivos são irrelevanvantes do ponto de vista clinico

 

Link:https://beta.isdscotland.org/media/6975/20-12-16-covid19-publication_report.pdf
Descrição: Valor preditivo positivo dos testes “rápidos” uns miseros 58%, ou seja 42% dos positivos são falsos. E ainda assim quando comparados com PCR com número de ciclos desconhecido

 

Link:https://www.bmj.com/content/371/bmj.m4436
Descrição: Falhas gravissimas na qualidade e execução de testes em larga escala

 

Link: https://www.rcpjournals.org/content/clinmedicine/early/2020/11/26/clinmed.2020-0839.full.pdf
Descrição: Percentagens elevadissimas de falsos positivos e consequencias destruidoras de isolamentos dai resultantes

 

Link:https://www.who.int/news/item/14-12-2020-who-information-notice-for-ivd-users
Descrição: A própria OMS que alimenta o medo, a alertar explicitamente para os falsos positivos em larga escala

 

Link:https://www.who.int/docs/default-source/coronaviruse/whoinhouseassays.Pdf
Descrição: Descrição dos diversos protocolos de teste no mundo, com menção explicita que no japão usam 12 alvos, no resto do mundo 2 ou 3. O Japão tem muito poucos casos por milhão de habitantes

 

Link:https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7355678/
Descrição: O protocolo de teste PCR desenvovido pelo Charité de Berlim por Drosten et al, o primeiro a ser publicado e que serve de referencia à esmagadora maioria dos laboratórios é lixo puro.

 

Link:https://www.cam.ac.uk/sites/www.cam.ac.uk/files/documents/pooled_testing_report_30nov-6dec.pdf
Descrição: 100% de falsos positivos.

 

Link:https://www.clinicalmicrobiologyandinfection.com/article/S1198-743X(20)30614-5/fulltext
Descrição: Elevadissima percentagem de falsos positivos em Cambridge

 

Link:https://portugal.cochrane.org/sites/portugal.cochrane.org/files/public/uploads/newsletter_55_isbe_20201019.pdf
Descrição: Explicação de falsos postivos pela Cochrane Portugal

 

Link:https://www.medrxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.04.26.20080911v3.full.pdf
Descrição: Elevadas percentagens de falsos positivos em baixa prevalencia

 

Link:https://www.cebm.net/covid-19/pitfalls-of-repeat-testing-illustrated-with-the-house-of-commons/
Descrição: Centro para medicina baseada em prova, CEBM, da universidade de Oxford a exemplificar o absurdo de testar em barda

 

Link:https://www.thelancet.com/journals/lanres/article/PIIS2213-2600(20)30453-7/fulltext#box1
Descrição: Elevada percentagem de falsos positivos por have muito baixa prevalência. Tornando o teste essencialmente inutil.

 

Link:https://www.medcalc.org/calc/diagnostic_test.php
Descrição: Simulador de estatistica de testes

 

Link:https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sensitivity_and_specificity
Descrição: Introdução a estatistica de testes

 

Link:https://dre.pt/web/guest/pesquisa/-/search/143067732/details/maximized
Descrição: Legislação nacional a isentar de supervisão e certificação os laboratórios que façam testes PCR para covid

 

Link:https://www.medrxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.05.17.20104927v1.full.pdf
Descrição: Prevalence Threshold dos testes PCR para SARS covid -19 . Abaixo de 19% de prevalencia os testes são inuteis.

 

Link:https://www.fhi.no/nyheter/2020/unodvendig-a-teste-store-grupper-av-friske-ved-lite-koronasmitte/
Descrição: A DGS Norueguesa a recomendar no preto no branco que testar grupos para covid é apenas procurar falsos positivos, caça a gambuzinos.

 

Link:https://www.medrxiv.org/content/medrxiv/early/2020/05/20/2020.04.26.20080911.full.pdf
Descrição: Alertas já em abril para falsos positivos

 

Vacinas Covid19

Link:https://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/acip/meetings/downloads/slides-2020-12/slides-12-19/05-COVID-CLARK.pdf
Descrição: Anaphylaxis Following m-RNA COVID-19 Vaccine Receipt – ( A vacina é mais perigosa que o virus )

 

Link:https://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/PIIS0140-6736(20)32661-1/fulltext
Descrição: Não há qualquer substancia nos resultados. Aprovar vacinas com dados destes é um crime

 

Link:https://blogs.bmj.com/bmj/2020/11/26/peter-doshi-pfizer-and-modernas-95-effective-vaccines-lets-be-cautious-and-first-see-the-full-data/
Descrição: Peça de opinião do editor do BMJ, sobre as falácias e mentiras das vacinas salvadoras com “90% de eficácia”. Não são, nem perto, muito menos reduzem o que interessa: doença grave e infeção. Apenas manipulação bolsista.

 

Imunidade

Link:  https://science.sciencemag.org/content/early/2021/01/05/science.abf4063
Descrição: Imunidade duradoura, como seria normal.

Link:https://www.medrxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.11.18.20234369v1
Descrição: Antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 are associated with protection against reinfection – Imunidade após infeção duradoira

 

Link: https://immunology.sciencemag.org/content/5/54/eabf3698

Descrição: Imunidade inata e cruzada em 89%

 

Link:https://www.biorxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.11.15.383323v1
Descrição: Immunological memory to SARS-CoV-2 assessed for greater than six months after infection Imunidade após infeção duradoira pelo menos seis meses

 

Link:https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/936461/EDSAB-HOME_study-details-research-protocol-outputs_18-11-20.pdf
Descrição: 1Evaluating detection of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies – Imunidade após infeção duradoira

 

Link:https://portalcne.isciii.es/enecovid19/informes/informe_cuarta_ronda.pdf
Descrição: Apenas 68% das pessoas “positivas” tem anticorpos. Ou seja, uma percentagem altissima, 32%, de pessoas considerada “casos” não tiveram de facto infeção em momento nenhum. Do total, dos participantes aproximadamente 32% foram pelo menos uma vez FALSOS POSITIVOS em PCR. Atenção que o os estudos de serologia, como este, dão positivo a anticorpos, logo detectam a infeção EM QUALQUER MOMENTO, mas o PCR é apenas para o momento de teste. A probabilidade de um teste PCR ser falso positivo é muito superior a este valor, 32%, porque é apenas um teste limitado no tempo. 32% é o limite minimo de falsos positivos, o máximo…. ninguém sabe, ninguém com responsabilidade quer saber.Se analisarmos os dados de testes “rápidos” antigéno, o cenário é ainda mais chocante, com apenas 56% dos testes antigéno positivo a terem de fato infeção. Ou seja, pelo menos 44% dos antigénio foram FALSOS POSITIVOS.Usar máscara ou ficar em casa não altera nada a probabilidade de ser infectado. Usar máscara sempre pode aumentar o risco de infeção (não há certeza estatistica para afirmar tal).

 

Link:https://www.biorxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.12.20.414748v1
Descrição: um estudo que encontra reação de anticorpos de outros corona para o SARS cov 2, mais uma prova de imunidade cruzada, ou seja que a maioria da população é capaz de lidar com o virus por já ter sido infectado com os multiplos corona que causam constipação. Mais prova de um virus banal.

 

Link:https://www.bmj.com/content/370/bmj.m3563
Descrição: Imunidade cruzada em elevadas percentagens da população

 

Link:https://medicalxpress.com/news/2020-09-strong-anti-bacterial-cells-linked-severe.html
Descrição: Células T que todos temos indicam elevada actividade em infectados da doença da moda. Indicação de resposta imunitária inata e imediata ao virus. Indicação que não passa de uma constipação banal que o sistema imunitário trata como uma constipação banal.

 

Link:https://www.nature.com/articles/s41590-020-00808-x
Descrição: 81% das pessoas que não foram infectadas por o virus da moda, apresentam reacção imunológica com células T. 81% tem a base de imunidade cruzada, em linha com todos os outros virus corona de constipação banal.

 

Link:https://thorax.bmj.com/content/early/2020/08/28/thoraxjnl-2020-215414
Descrição: Os médicos “na linha da frente” não são quem tem mais anticorpos, logo mais infeção, mais risco. Não são “herois” que se querem vender.

 

Link:https://www.researchsquare.com/article/rs-35331
Descrição: Estudo alemão encontra 81% de reactividade de células T a corona. Ou seja, 81% das pessoas nem chegam a ter infeccao propriamente dita, tem capacidade de combater o vírus com o sistema imunitário primário e já existente.

 

Link:https://science.sciencemag.org/content/early/2020/08/04/science.abd3871.full
Descrição: Imunidade cruzada em 20 a 50% das pessoas, de outras constipações. A razão pela qual não se encontra serologia acima de 20% e a infecção parada.

 

Link:https://www.fhi.no/globalassets/dokumenterfiler/rapporter/2020/should-individuals-in-the-community-without-respiratory-symptoms-wear-facemasks-to-reduce-the-spread-of-covid-19-report-2020.pdf
Descrição: Instituto de saude Noruegues diz que usar mascara nao tem efeito

 

Link:https://www.medrxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.07.15.20154294v1

 

Link:https://www.nature.com/articles/s41577-020-0389-z
Descrição: Elevada imunidade inata

 

Link:https://www.biorxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.06.29.174888v1.full
Descrição: Elevada imunidade inata sem anticorpos

 

Link:https://medicalxpress.com/news/2020-06-immunity-covid-higher-shown.html
Descrição: Imunidade inata em elevada percentagem da população

 

Link:https://www.researchsquare.com/article/rs-35331/v1
Descrição: Imunidade cruzada a outros corona em elevadas fatias da população

 

Link:https://www.medrxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.05.11.20098442v1
Descrição: 4.6% da população de Milão já tinha anticorpos a covid ANTES do inicio oficial da pandemia. Só subiu para 7.1% até final de Abril, indicação que quando começou a quarentena a infecção já tinha feito a maioria do seu caminho.

 

Link:https://www.cell.com/action/showPdf?pii=S0092-8674%2820%2930610-3
Descrição: Um estudo que indica que em pessoas não expostas a covid-19 foi detectada capacidade de o sistema imunitário reagir ao virus imediatamente, provavelmente por o reconhecerem como sendo “mais um corona”. Revista de elevada credibilidade, com revisão por pares feita.

 

Link:https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0092867420302622
Descrição: Ou seja, pessoas que estiveram infectadas com alguns corona (muito comuns) tem alguma imunidade inicial cruzada a Covid-19

 

Link:https://www.nature.com/articles/s41591-020-0897-1.pdf
Descrição: 100% of cases show antibodies. Todos os infectados estudados apresentaram anticorpos, logo uma elevadíssima capacidade de gerar imunidade.

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Link: Gittelman RM, Lavezzo E, Snyder TM et al. Diagnosis and Tracking of Past SARS-CoV-2 Infection in a Large Study of Vo’, Italy Through T-Cell Receptor Sequencing. https://www.medrxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.11.09.20228023v1
Link:  Snyder TM, Gittelman RM, Klinger M et al. Magnitude and Dynamics of the T-Cell Response to SARS-CoV-2 Infection at Both Individual and Population Levels. https://www.medrxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.07.31.20165647v3

 

Assintomáticos e Crianças

Link: https://www.medrxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.09.21.20196428v1
Decrição: Estudo de 300 000 pessoas, muito grande, indica redução marginal do risco por conviver com crianças. Um resultado gigantesco pelo tamanho da amostra.

Linkhttps://www.medrxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.09.01.20135194v1
Descrição: Revisão de literatura e estudos. Assintomáticos não contribuem em nada relevante para a infeção.

Link: https://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/pediatrics/early/2021/01/06/peds.2020-048090.full.pdf
Descrição: Nem um unico caso de transmissão criança adulto em mais de 90 000 individuos

Link:https://www.eurosurveillance.org/content/10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2020.26.1.2002011 – Minimal transmission of SARS-CoV-2 from paediatric COVID-19 cases in primary schools, Norway, August to November 2020
Descrição:  As escolas abertas normalmente no verão e outono na Noruega não tiveram qualquer relevancia em infeção.

Link: https://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMc2026670?query=TOC
Descrição: As escolas abertas na Suécia não tiveram qualquer impacto na infeção

Link:https://www.bmj.com/content/371/bmj.m4436/rr-10
Descrição: Não é um artigo. Revisão da prova existente, ou não existente, sobre infeção por assintomáticos. Apenas há relatos de caso de péssima qualidade.

 

Link: https://www.bmj.com/content/371/bmj.m4851
Descrição: O papel dos assintomáticos foi muito exagerado e não há prova que sustente tais afirmações.

Link:https://portugal.cochrane.org/sites/portugal.cochrane.org/files/public/uploads/newsletter_72_isbe_20201217.pdf
Descrição:Baixa ou nula infeção por assintomáticos

 

Link: https://www.ucl.ac.uk/news/2020/oct/symptoms-covid-19-are-poor-marker-infection
Descrição:86% dos “casos” no U.K. não tinham qualquer sintoma, logo não tem qualquer doença! 86%! Milhares de pessoas condenadas a prisão domiciliária sem qualquer doença, sem qualquer dado clínico de relevo, só com azar de estar no sítio errado a hora errada.

 

Link: https://www.nature.com/articles/s41591-020-1046-6
Descrição: Pré sintomáticos não contribuem em nada relevante para a infeção

 

Link:https://www.acpjournals.org/doi/10.7326/M20-2671
Descrição: De 3410 pessoas seguidas, 127 foram infectadas. 126 por pessoas com sintomas, e apenas UM por uma pessoa sem sintomas. E para conseguir infectar um, teve de ter contacto com 305.

 

Link:https://www.ecdc.europa.eu/en/publications-data/children-and-school-settings-covid-19-transmission
Descrição: As crianças não contribuem para a infeção

 

Link:https://www.medrxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.07.20.20157149v1
Descrição: a convivencia regular com crianças for antes um factor de PROTECÇÃO contra covid

 

Link:https://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/early/2020/07/08/peds.2020-004879

 

Link:https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32405162/
Descrição: Portadores assimtomaticos tem pouca capacidade de infectar. Mais um mito que cai por terra

 

Link:https://www.medrxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.03.26.20044826v1
Descrição: As crianças provavelmente não infectam mesmo que infectadas.

Link: https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jamanetworkopen/fullarticle/2774102
Descrição: Assintomáticos não infectam nada de relevante nos cenários de casa

 

Máscaras & Confinamentos

Link: https://www.thelancet.com/journals/laninf/article/PIIS1473-3099(20)30985-3/fulltext
Descrição: Uso de máscara não reduz risco de infeção. Risco determinado por carga viral e por convivio em casa.

Link: https://www.medrxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.12.28.20248936v1 – Lockdown Effects on Sars-CoV-2 Transmission – The evidence from Northern Jutland
Descrição: Em Novembro a Dinamarca fez com que alguns municípios na Jutlândia do Norte fossem confinados enquanto outros mantiveram a liberdade. Por causa da delirante “infeção nos visons”.   Trata-se do primeiro estudo caso-controlo de confinamento. O segundo tipo de estudo empirico mais importante, abaixo dos RCT. Um estudo gigantesco em termos de prova factual. O resultado? O confinamento não serviu de absolutamente nada. As infeções já tinham descido antes de o confinamento poder ter algum efeito.

Link:https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/epdf/10.1111/eci.13484 – Assessing Mandatory Stay‐at‐Home and Business Closure Effects on the Spread of COVID‐19
Descrição:  Medidas de confinamento não tiveram efeito relevante. Note-se que isto não é um artigo de simulação/modelo de “se não fossem tomadas as medidas ia ser muito mau, mas tomadas as medidas é menos mau”. Não é uma bola de cristal de previsão do futuro com um computador, com código de péssima qualidade ou secreto. São comparações sistemáticas de resultados entre paises, levando em conta a própria evolução sazonal da doença. O código de análise foi publicado. Ciência como a ética obriga.

Link:https://www.cochrane.org/CD006207/ARI_do-physical-measures-such-hand-washing-or-wearing-masks-stop-or-slow-down-spread-respiratory-viruses
Descrição: Revisão pela Cochrane a referencia mundial de medicina baseada em evidencia. Não encontra qualquer efeito de uso de máscara.

 

Link:https://www.acpjournals.org/doi/10.7326/M20-6817
Descrição: Effectiveness of Adding a Mask Recommendation to Other Public Health Measures to Prevent SARS-CoV-2 Infection in Danish Mask Wearers -Não foi encontrado qualquer efeito de uso de máscaras num estudo RCT random control trial, o estudo mais poderoso que se pode fazer.

 

Link:https://www.eurosurveillance.org/content/10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2020.25.49.2000725
Descrição: Conclusão é que não há dados, que são problemas muito complexos com muitas variáveis e não é possivel portanto afirmar qualquer efeito.

 

Link:https://www.cochranelibrary.com/cdsr/doi/10.1002/14651858.CD006207.pub5/full
Descrição: Physical interventions to interrupt or reduce the spread of respiratory viruses – Revisão de vários estudos não encontra efeito relevante do uso de máscaras ou da maioria das medidas tomadas.

 

Link:https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/69/wr/pdfs/mm6936a5-H.pdf
Descrição: Estudo caso-controlo, o terceiro tipo de estudo mais forte na hierarquia de prova cientifica em medicina, indica que usar máscara não contribui para redução de risco. A maioria, 70%, dos casos indicam usar sempre máscaras.

 

Livro: Influenza, A Study of Measures Adopted for the Control of the Epidemic (California State Board of Health) Dr. Wilfred H. Kellogg Versão online https://quod.lib.umich.edu/f/flu/8150flu.0013.518/1/–influenza-a-study-of-measures-adopted-for-the-control?page=root;size=125;view=text
Descrição: Prova escrita de 1918 de um médico amplamente conceituado, Dr. Kellog, que as máscaras não tiverem qualquer efeito, não tendo sido nunca obrigatórias.

 

Link:https://www.medrxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.08.28.20180463v1.full.pdf
Descrição: Primeiro estudo que analisou marginalmente efeitos do uso de mascaras na comunidade. Efeitos residuais tendo em conta o impacto que tem tais medidas. Reduções de 9,9% de infecções, no melhor cenário. De notar que o estudo baseia-se em inquéritos sobre o passado, logo com viés fortissimo mais que conhecido da memória Humana.

 

Link:https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/25294675/
Descrição: As máscaras cirurgicas contribuem mesmo para a redução de infecção? Talvez não. Talvez os médicos usem máscara por ritual. Talvez seja péssima ideia aceitar o mesmo ritual, defender ou muito menos impor tal ritual quando viola direitos constituicionais.

 

Link:https://www.oralhealthgroup.com/features/face-masks-dont-work-revealing-review/
Descrição: “Why face masks dont work” um estudo publicado ANTES de covid-19 e RETIRADO pela revista. Censura cientifica da prova que não alinhava na nova religião.

 

Link:https://www.thelancet.com/action/showPdf?pii=S2589-5370%2820%2930208-X
Descrição: Os confinamentos de pessoas saudaveis, fecho de fronteiras e testar muito não estão correlacionados com mortalidade por milhão

 

Link:http://www.salute.gov.it/portale/nuovocoronavirus/dettaglioContenutiNuovoCoronavirus.jsp?lingua=english&id=5367&area=nuovoCoronavirus&menu=vuoto
Descrição: Mais de 80% das infeções em Itália são em casa, para onde os politicos obrigam todos a estar.

 

Link:A country level analysis measuring the impact of government actions, country preparedness and socioeconomic factors on COVID-19 mortality and related health outcomes” by Rabail Chaudhry, George Dranitsaris, Talha Mubashir, Justyna Bartoszko, Sheila Riazi. EClinicalMedicine 25 (2020) 100464.
Descrição: “[F]ull lockdowns and wide-spread COVID-19 testing were not associated with reductions in the number of critical cases or overall mortality.”

 

Link:Was Germany’s Corona Lockdown Necessary?” by Christof Kuhbandner, Stefan Homburg, Harald Walach, Stefan Hockertz. Advance: Sage Preprint, June 23, 2020.
Descrição: Dados oficiais do RKI alemão indicam que a infeção na Alemanha recuou naturalmente sem qualquer correlação com as medidas tomadas. A razões são a variação de imunidade na população e do comportamento social inato em que a imunidade se pode atingir com apenas 20% de infectados. Também importante os factores sazonais.

 

Link:Estimation of the current development of the SARS-CoV-2 epidemic in Germany” by Matthias an der Heiden, Osamah Hamouda. Robert Koch-Institut, April 22, 2020.
Descrição: “In general, however, not all infected people develop symptoms, not all those who develop symptoms go to a doctor’s office, not all who go to the doctor are tested and not all who test positive are also recorded in a data collection system. In addition, there is a certain amount of time between all these individual steps, so that no survey system, no matter how good, can make a statement about the current infection process without additional assumptions and calculations.”

 

Link:Did COVID-19 infections decline before UK lockdown? by Simon N. Wood. Cornell University pre-print, August 8, 2020.
Descrição: Dados do UK e Suécia indicam que a infeção estava em queda acentuada antes do confinamento.

 

Link:Comment on Flaxman et al. (2020): The illusory effects of non-pharmaceutical interventions on COVID-19 in Europe” by Stefan Homburg and Christof Kuhbandner. June 17, 2020. Advance, Sage Pre-Print.
Descrição: “In a recent article, Flaxman et al. allege that non-pharmaceutical interventions imposed by 11 European countries saved millions of lives. We show that their methods involve circular reasoning. The purported effects are pure artefacts, which contradict the data. Moreover, we demonstrate that the United Kingdom’s lockdown was both superfluous and ineffective.”

 

Link:Professor Ben Israel’s Analysis of virus transmission. April 16, 2020.
Descrição: “Some may claim that the decline in the number of additional patients every day is a result of the tight lockdown imposed by the government and health authorities. Examining the data of different countries around the world casts a heavy question mark on the above statement. It turns out that a similar pattern – rapid increase in infections that reaches a peak in the sixth week and declines from the eighth week – is common to all countries in which the disease was discovered, regardless of their response policies: some imposed a severe and immediate lockdown that included not only ‘social distancing’ and banning crowding, but also shutout of economy (like Israel); some ‘ignored’ the infection and continued almost a normal life (such as Taiwan, Korea or Sweden), and some initially adopted a lenient policy but soon reversed to a complete lockdown (such as Italy or the State of New York). Nonetheless, the data shows similar time constants amongst all these countries in regard to the initial rapid growth and the decline of the disease.”

 

Link:Impact of non-pharmaceutical interventions against COVID-19 in Europe: a quasi-experimental study” by Paul Raymond Hunter, Felipe Colon-Gonzalez, Julii Suzanne Brainard, Steve Rushton. MedRxiv Pre-print May 1, 2020.
Descrição: “The current epidemic of COVID-19 is unparalleled in recent history as are the social distancing interventions that have led to a significant halt on the economic and social life of so many countries. However, there is very little empirical evidence about which social distancing measures have the most impact… From both sets of modelling, we found that closure of education facilities, prohibiting mass gatherings and closure of some non-essential businesses were associated with reduced incidence whereas stay at home orders and closure of all non-businesses was not associated with any independent additional impact.”

 

Link:Full lockdown policies in Western Europe countries have no evident impacts on the COVID-19 epidemic” by Thomas Meunier. MedRxiv Pre-print May 1, 2020.
Descrição: “This phenomenological study assesses the impacts of full lockdown strategies applied in Italy, France, Spain and United Kingdom, on the slowdown of the 2020 COVID-19 outbreak. Comparing the trajectory of the epidemic before and after the lockdown, we find no evidence of any discontinuity in the growth rate, doubling time, and reproduction number trends. Extrapolating pre-lockdown growth rate trends, we provide estimates of the death toll in the absence of any lockdown policies, and show that these strategies might not have saved any life in western Europe. We also show that neighboring countries applying less restrictive social distancing measures (as opposed to police-enforced home containment) experience a very similar time evolution of the epidemic.”

 

Link:Trajectory of COVID-19 epidemic in Europe” by Marco Colombo, Joseph Mellor, Helen M Colhoun, M. Gabriela M. Gomes, Paul M McKeigue. MedRxiv Pre-print. Posted September 28, 2020.
Descrição: “The classic Susceptible-Infected-Recovered model formulated by Kermack and McKendrick assumes that all individuals in the population are equally susceptible to infection. From fitting such a model to the trajectory of mortality from COVID-19 in 11 European countries up to 4 May 2020 Flaxman et al. concluded that ‘major non-pharmaceutical interventions — and lockdowns in particular — have had a large effect on reducing transmission’. We show that relaxing the assumption of homogeneity to allow for individual variation in susceptibility or connectivity gives a model that has better fit to the data and more accurate 14-day forward prediction of mortality. Allowing for heterogeneity reduces the estimate of ‘counterfactual’ deaths that would have occurred if there had been no interventions from 3.2 million to 262,000, implying that most of the slowing and reversal of COVID-19 mortality is explained by the build-up of herd immunity. The estimate of the herd immunity threshold depends on the value specified for the infection fatality ratio (IFR): a value of 0.3% for the IFR gives 15% for the average herd immunity threshold.”

 

Link:Effect of school closures on mortality from coronavirus disease 2019: old and new predictions” by Ken Rice, Ben Wynne, Victoria Martin, Graeme J Ackland. British Medical Journal, September 15, 2020.
Descrição: “The findings of this study suggest that prompt interventions were shown to be highly effective at reducing peak demand for intensive care unit (ICU) beds but also prolong the epidemic, in some cases resulting in more deaths long term. This happens because covid-19 related mortality is highly skewed towards older age groups. In the absence of an effective vaccination programme, none of the proposed mitigation strategies in the UK would reduce the predicted total number of deaths below 200 000.”

 

Link:Modeling social distancing strategies to prevent SARS-CoV2 spread in Israel- A Cost-effectiveness analysis” by Amir Shlomai, Ari Leshno, Ella H Sklan, Moshe Leshno. MedRxiv Pre-Print. September 20, 2020.
Descrição: “A nationwide lockdown is expected to save on average 274 (median 124, interquartile range (IQR): 71-221) lives compared to the ‘testing, tracing, and isolation’ approach. However, the ICER will be on average $45,104,156 (median $ 49.6 million, IQR: 22.7-220.1) to prevent one case of death. Conclusions: A national lockdown has a moderate advantage in saving lives with tremendous costs and possible overwhelming economic effects. These findings should assist decision-makers in dealing with additional waves of this pandemic.”

 

Link:Too Little of a Good Thing A Paradox of Moderate Infection Control, by Ted Cohen and Marc Lipsitch. Epidemiology. 2008 Jul; 19(4): 588–589.
Descrição: “The link between limiting pathogen exposure and improving public health is not always so straightforward. Reducing the risk that each member of a community will be exposed to a pathogen has the attendant effect of increasing the average age at which infections occur. For pathogens that inflict greater morbidity at older ages, interventions that reduce but do not eliminate exposure can paradoxically increase the number of cases of severe disease by shifting the burden of infection toward older individuals.”

 

Link:“Smart Thinking, Lockdown and COVID-19: Implications for Public Policy” by Morris Altman. Journal of Behavioral Economics for Policy, 2020.
Descrição: “The response to COVID-19 has been overwhelmingly to lockdown much of the world’s economies in order to minimize death rates as well as the immediate negative effects of COVID-19. I argue that such policy is too often de-contextualized as it ignores policy externalities, assumes death rate calculations are appropriately accurate and, and as well, assumes focusing on direct Covid-19 effects to maximize human welfare is appropriate. As a result of this approach current policy can be misdirected and with highly negative effects on human welfare. Moreover, such policies can inadvertently result in not minimizing death rates (incorporating externalities) at all, especially in the long run. Such misdirected and sub-optimal policy is a product of policy makers using inappropriate mental models which are lacking in a number of key areas; the failure to take a more comprehensive macro perspective to address the virus, using bad heuristics or decision-making tools, relatedly not recognizing the differential effects of the virus, and adopting herding strategy (follow-the-leader) when developing policy. Improving the decision-making environment, inclusive of providing more comprehensive governance and improving mental models could have lockdowns throughout the world thus yielding much higher levels of human welfare.”

 

Link:SARS-CoV-2 waves in Europe: A 2-stratum SEIRS model solution” by Levan Djaparidze and Federico Lois. MedRxiv pre-print, October 23, 2020.
Descrição: “We found that 180-day of mandatory isolations to healthy <60 (i.e. schools and workplaces closed) produces more final deaths if the vaccination date is later than (Madrid: Feb 23 2021; Catalonia: Dec 28 2020; Paris: Jan 14 2021; London: Jan 22 2021). We also modeled how average isolation levels change the probability of getting infected for a single individual that isolates differently than average. That led us to realize disease damages to third parties due to virus spreading can be calculated and to postulate that an individual has the right to avoid isolation during epidemics (SARS-CoV-2 or any other).”

 

Link:Did Lockdown Work? An Economist’s Cross-Country Comparison” by Christian Bjørnskov. SSRN working paper, August 2, 2020.
Descrição: “The lockdowns in most Western countries have thrown the world into the most severe recession since World War II and the most rapidly developing recession ever seen in mature market economies. They have also caused an erosion of fundamental rights and the separation of powers in a large part of the world as both democratic and autocratic regimes have misused their emergency powers and ignored constitutional limits to policy-making (Bjørnskov and Voigt, 2020). It is therefore important to evaluate whether and to which extent the lockdowns have worked as officially intended: to suppress the spread of the SARS-CoV-2 virus and prevent deaths associated with it. Comparing weekly mortality in 24 European countries, the findings in this paper suggest that more severe lockdown policies have not been associated with lower mortality. In other words, the lockdowns have not worked as intended.”

 

Link:Four Stylized Facts about COVID-19” (alt-link) by Andrew Atkeson, Karen Kopecky, and Tao Zha. NBER working paper 27719, August 2020.
Descrição: “One of the central policy questions regarding the COVID-19 pandemic is the question of which non-pharmeceutical interventions governments might use to influence the transmission of the disease. Our ability to identify empirically which NPI’s have what impact on disease transmission depends on there being enough independent variation in both NPI’s and disease transmission across locations as well as our having robust procedures for controlling for other observed and unobserved factors that might be influencing disease transmission. The facts that we document in this paper cast doubt on this premise…. The existing literature has concluded that NPI policy and social distancing have been essential to reducing the spread of COVID-19 and the number of deaths due to this deadly pandemic. The stylized facts established in this paper challenge this conclusion.”

 

Link:How does Belarus have one of the lowest death rates in Europe?” by Kata Karáth. British Medical Journal, September 15, 2020.
Descrição: “Belarus’s beleaguered government remains unfazed by covid-19. President Aleksander Lukashenko, who has been in power since 1994, has flatly denied the seriousness of the pandemic, refusing to impose a lockdown, close schools, or cancel mass events like the Belarusian football league or the Victory Day parade. Yet the country’s death rate is among the lowest in Europe—just over 700 in a population of 9.5 million with over 73 000 confirmed cases.”

 

Link:Association between living with children and outcomes from COVID-19: an OpenSAFELY cohort study of 12 million adults in England” by Harriet Forbes, Caroline E Morton, Seb Bacon et al., by MedRxiv, November 2, 2020.
Descrição: “Among 9,157,814 adults ≤65 years, living with children 0-11 years was not associated with increased risks of recorded SARS-CoV-2 infection, COVID-19 related hospital or ICU admission but was associated with reduced risk of COVID-19 death (HR 0.75, 95%CI 0.62-0.92). Living with children aged 12-18 years was associated with a small increased risk of recorded SARS-CoV-2 infection (HR 1.08, 95%CI 1.03-1.13), but not associated with other COVID-19 outcomes. Living with children of any age was also associated with lower risk of dying from non-COVID-19 causes. Among 2,567,671 adults >65 years there was no association between living with children and outcomes related to SARS-CoV-2. We observed no consistent changes in risk following school closure.”

 

Link:Exploring inter-country coronavirus mortality“ By Trevor Nell, Ian McGorian, Nick Hudson. Pandata, July 7, 2020.
Descrição: “For each country put forward as an example, usually in some pairwise comparison and with an attendant single cause explanation, there are a host of countries that fail the expectation. We set out to model the disease with every expectation of failure. In choosing variables it was obvious from the outset that there would be contradictory outcomes in the real world. But there were certain variables that appeared to be reliable markers as they had surfaced in much of the media and pre-print papers. These included age, co-morbidity prevalence and the seemingly light population mortality rates in poorer countries than that in richer countries. Even the worst among developing nations—a clutch of countries in equatorial Latin America—have seen lighter overall population mortality than the developed world. Our aim therefore was not to develop the final answer, rather to seek common cause variables that would go some way to providing an explanation and stimulating discussion. There are some very obvious outliers in this theory, not the least of these being Japan. We test and find wanting the popular notions that lockdowns with their attendant social distancing and various other NPIs confer protection.”

 

Link:Covid-19 Mortality: A Matter of Vulnerability Among Nations Facing Limited Margins of Adaptation” by Quentin De Larochelambert, Andy Marc, Juliana Antero, Eric Le Bourg, and Jean-François Toussaint. Frontiers in Public Health, 19 November 2020.
Descrição: “Higher Covid death rates are observed in the [25/65°] latitude and in the [−35/−125°] longitude ranges. The national criteria most associated with death rate are life expectancy and its slowdown, public health context (metabolic and non-communicable diseases (NCD) burden vs. infectious diseases prevalence), economy (growth national product, financial support), and environment (temperature, ultra-violet index). Stringency of the measures settled to fight pandemia, including lockdown, did not appear to be linked with death rate. Countries that already experienced a stagnation or regression of life expectancy, with high income and NCD rates, had the highest price to pay. This burden was not alleviated by more stringent public decisions. Inherent factors have predetermined the Covid-19 mortality: understanding them may improve prevention strategies by increasing population resilience through better physical fitness and immunity.”

 

Link:States with the Fewest Coronavirus Restrictions” by Adam McCann. WalletHub, Oct 6, 2020.
Descrição: This study assesses and ranks stringencies in the United States by states. The results are plotted against deaths per capita and unemployment. The graphics reveal no relationship in stringency level as it relates to the death rates, but finds a clear relationship between stringency and unemployment.

 

Link:The Mystery of Taiwan: Commentary on the Lancet Study of Taiwan and New Zealand, by Amelia Janaskie. American Institute for Economic Research, November 2, 2020.
Descrição: “The Taiwanese case reveals something extraordinary about pandemic response. As much as public-health authorities imagine that the trajectory of a new virus can be influenced or even controlled by policies and responses, the current and past experiences of coronavirus illustrate a different point. The severity of a new virus might have far more to do with endogenous factors within a population rather than the political response. According to the lockdown narrative, Taiwan did almost everything ‘wrong’ but generated what might in fact be the best results in terms of public health of any country in the world.”

 

Link:Predicting the Trajectory of Any COVID19 Epidemic From the Best Straight Line” by Michael Levitt, Andrea Scaiewicz, Francesco Zonta. MedRxiv, Pre-print, June 30, 2020.
Descrição: “Comparison of locations with over 50 deaths shows all outbreaks have a common feature: H(t) defined as loge(X(t)/X(t-1)) decreases linearly on a log scale, where X(t) is the total number of Cases or Deaths on day, t (we use ln for loge). The downward slopes vary by about a factor of three with time constants (1/slope) of between 1 and 3 weeks; this suggests it may be possible to predict when an outbreak will end. Is it possible to go beyond this and perform early prediction of the outcome in terms of the eventual plateau number of total confirmed cases or deaths? We test this hypothesis by showing that the trajectory of cases or deaths in any outbreak can be converted into a straight line. Specifically Y(t)≡−ln(ln(N/X(t)),is a straight line for the correct plateau value N, which is determined by a new method, Best-Line Fitting (BLF). BLF involves a straight-line facilitation extrapolation needed for prediction; it is blindingly fast and amenable to optimization. We find that in some locations that entire trajectory can be predicted early, whereas others take longer to follow this simple functional form.”

 

Link:Government mandated lockdowns do not reduce Covid-19 deaths: implications for evaluating the stringent New Zealand response” by John Gibson. New Zealand Economic Papers, August 25, 2020.
Descrição: “The New Zealand policy response to Coronavirus was the most stringent in the world during the Level 4 lockdown. Up to 10 billion dollars of output (≈3.3% of GDP) was lost in moving to Level 4 rather than staying at Level 2, according to Treasury calculations. For lockdown to be optimal requires large health benefits to offset this output loss. Forecast deaths from epidemiological models are not valid counterfactuals, due to poor identification. Instead, I use empirical data, based on variation amongst United States counties, over one-fifth of which just had social distancing rather than lockdown. Political drivers of lockdown provide identification. Lockdowns do not reduce Covid-19 deaths. This pattern is visible on each date that key lockdown decisions were made in New Zealand. The apparent ineffectiveness of lockdowns suggests that New Zealand suffered large economic costs for little benefit in terms of lives saved.”

 

Link:https://portugal.cochrane.org/sites/portugal.cochrane.org/files/public/uploads/newsletter_67_isbe_20201130.pdf
Descrição: Não há beneficios das medidas tomadas, pela Cochrane Portugal

 

Link:https://bmjopen.bmj.com/content/5/4/e006577?fbclid=_9aXEy_kD
Descrição: RISCO ACRESCIDO PELO USO e recomendar liminarmente a revisão de recomendações clínicas existentes

 

Link:https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/8850864/
Descrição: clinical data suggests that the present generation of masks does not protect staff either from airborne bacteria. Surgeons and other theatre personnel consider wearing face masks a nuisance but feel it is the “thing to do”

 

Link:https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/pdf/10.1177/0310057X0102900402
Descrição: Including masks, have insignificant impact from an infection control viewpoint. A decision to eliminate masks would generate much discussion. The evidence for discontinuing the
use of surgical face masks would appear to be stronger than the evidence available to support theircontinued use.

 

Link:https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/16295987/
Descrição: From the limited results it is unclear whether wearing surgical face masks results in any harm or benefit

 

Link:https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/20524498/
Descrição: No significance difference in the incidence of postoperative wound infection

 

Link:https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/25294675/
Descrição: Found four studies based on 6.006 patient, None of the four studies found a difference in the number of post-operative infections

 

Link:https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/14562656/
Descrição: Currently there is little evidence that wearing a surgical mask provides sufficient protection

 

Link:https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/2766345/
Descrição: Wearing of caps and masks not necessary during cardiac catheterization

 

Link:https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/20575920/
Descrição: Surgical site infection rates did not increase

 

Link:https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/089686080002000320
Descrição: Peritonitis Prevention in CAPD: To Mask or Not?

 

Link:https://anesthesiology.pubs.asahq.org/article.aspx?articleid=2085803
Descrição: Anesthesia personnel are no longer required to wear disposable face masks in the operating room,

 

Link:https://arxiv.org/pdf/2005.02090.pdf
Descrição: Confinamento no UK DEPOIS do pico da infeção

 

Link:https://evidentiamedica.com/mortalidade-confinamento-e-sindrome-de-estocolmo/
Descrição: Falta de prova de eficacia das medidas tomadas

 

Link:https://www.tichyseinblick.de/daili-es-sentials/exklusiv-auf-te-ein-vorwurf-koennte-lauten-der-staat-hat-sich-in-der-coronakrise-als-einer-der-groessten-fake-news-produzenten-erwiesen/
Descrição: Relatorio interno do ministerio da admin interna Alemão em que apresentam a absoluta falta de prova das medidas tomadas

 

Link:https://www.bmj.com/content/369/bmj.m2060
Descrição: Para ser eticamente aceitável a quarentena tem de ser obrigatoriamente limitada ao minimo necessário, comprovadamente eficaz, proporcional ao risco da doença e ser a menos grave das medidas disponiveis. Uma quarentena pode piorar a infecção se for mal feita, porque expoe repetidamente pessoas ao virus e pode induzir medo e relutancia em relatar sintomas às autoridades sanitárias.

 

Link:https://www.gov.uk/government/news/government-publishes-sage-minutes
Descrição: In the minutes that various different containment measures were discussed by SAGE , but at no point before March 23rd did the group recommend the quarantining of the whole population.

 

Link:https://www.nrk.no/norge/vi-kunne-kanskje-klart-a-fa-kontroll-over-smitten-uten-a-stenge-ned-sa-kraftig-1.15024804
Descrição: Artigo jornalistico, com a primeira ministra Norueguesa a admitir que o confinamento foi um erro. A unica politica a faze-lo até hoje

 

Link:https://www.medrxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.04.04.20053058v1
Descrição: 317 covid outbreaks identified in China associated with indoors. Only one associated with outdoors.

 

Outras Doenças

Link: https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/5a81/5104a7c0380ca6c7b1ecf19952de63b5a673.pdf
Descrição:Como lidar com uma gripe GRAVE sem destruição social: A GRIPE DE 1957-58.

 

Link:https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5596521
Descrição: Mortalidade da Gripe

 

Link:https://www.ecdc.europa.eu/en/publications-data/seasonal-influenza-annual-epidemiological-report-2014-15-season
Descrição: *in 2014* This excess roughly corresponds to 217 000 deaths among the 94 million elderly citizens (65 years of age or older) of the 28 EU Member States.

 

Link:https://www.medrxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.04.01.20050542v2.full.pdf
Descrição: Covid was happily being taken for “flu” ILI and no panic seems to arise from telling someone they have “the flu”.

 

Link:https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/839350/Surveillance_of_influenza_and_other_respiratory_viruses_in_the_UK_2018_to_2019-FINAL.pdf
Descrição: Gripe no reino unido em 2018/19

 

Link:https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1201971219303285
Descrição: “A mortality rate of 10.7 per 1,000 inhabitants was observed in the winter season 2014/2015 (more than 375,000 deaths in absolute terms), corresponding to an estimated 54,000 excess deaths (+9.1%) as compared to 2014 (Signorelli and Odone, 2016), representing the highest reported mortality rate since the Second World War in Italy (UN, 2019).”

 

Link:https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/nvss/vsrr/COVID19/index.htm
Descrição: 19 babies under 1 year of age died in the USA since january. Of pneumonia.